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Sapphire is a gemstone variety of the mineral Corundum. Sapphires are most commonly known as a blue gemstone but can be found in any colour except red, red corundum is better known as ruby.
To obtain the blue colour in sapphire, both iron and titanium need to be present during the formation of the crystal. Since these elements are more common than chromium, which gives the red colour in rubies, blue sapphires are more easily found than rubies. Sapphire has a hardness of 9 on the Mohs scale if mineral hardness.

Blue is the most desirable colour in sapphires but opinions tend to differ on which blue is the most beautiful colour. In many cases the country of origin gives an idea of the shade of blue to expect. Sapphires are found in different parts of the world. Best known sapphire deposits are located in Myanmar (Burma), Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Thailand and Australia.

For more detailed information regarding sapphires please check out these pages:

Wikipedia - Sapphires

GIA - Sapphires

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