A Ruby is a variety of the mineral Corundum. Its colour is always a shade of red, varying from pink to deep vivid red. The red colour is due to the presence of the element chromium, which is present during the formation of the crystal. Fine rubies are extremely rare. Therefore, a top-quality 10-carat ruby can in some cases be valued far higher than a top-quality 10-carat diamond. If this seems surprising the history of diamond trading and marketing, rather than geology rarity is to blame.
Both ruby and sapphire are varieties of the mineral corundum. Many of the finest rubies are formed when a soft limestone rock is metamorphosed into marble: this is worth knowing since recognizable fragments of minerals from the original rock survive in a natural ruby which consequently proves its natural origin. Rubies are found in several areas around the world. The most known ruby depositis are loacted in Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Madagascar, Mozambique.
Rubies have a hardness of 9 on the Mohs scale if mineral hardness.
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